Out of Control Sea Lice

Sea Lice on Atlantic Salmon

They might be tiny, but they sure can do some damage.  They infest the open-net salmon farms and then hop on wild salmon swimming past.  I have read studies that claim sea lice kill 95percent of wild juvenile salmon that swim past the farms.

Here is a fresh article from CBC News about the extent of the damage.

CBC News – Technology & Science – Fish-farm sea lice more widespread than thought.

In another recent article from CBC News, Canada has approved the temporary use of a restricted pesticide called Alphamax on farmed salmon in New Brunswick, that have developed resistance to other pesticides.  The salmon will be pumped into the hold of a large boat, the water will be treated with the chemical, and the fish will be pumped back into their pens, along with the treated water.  Environmentalists are concerned (rightly so) that the chemicals could kill other sea life in the area, such as the lobster that local fishermen depend on.

Read more: http://www.cbc.ca/canada/new-brunswick/story/2010/10/20/nb-deltamethrin-approval-fish-farms.html#ixzz151B4kKh8

Basically, the only solution is to move all fish farms into closed containment systems on land.   We have seen over and over how unsafe these open-net systems are.  We have seen entire wild fish populations collapse in Norway, Ireland and Scotland.  Haven’t we learned our lesson yet?

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6 thoughts on “Out of Control Sea Lice

  1. Well it seems you didnt read the comments on that CBC News article. I also noted one of the colleagues mentioned was Alexandra Morton (= Bad science)! Its seems she will do anything she can to get her way including taking information she wants from research articles and excluding anything that dissagrees with what she is trying to accomplish. I’ve been a fish farmer for many years. I care about the environment as much as any other person. I won’t push my views on anyone, but instead ask that you become informed and make your own decisions. I won’t pretend to know everything about salmon farming, there is alot to know and even more to discover. One quote that comes to mind from the great Jacques Cousteau is “We must plant the sea and herd its animals using the sea as farmers instead of hunters. That is what civilization is all about – farming replacing hunting.”
    Click this link If you would like to know more about fish farming .
    http://fishfarming.wordpress.com

    • Thanks for your comment. I also try not to think in absolutes, so I am open to learning more about salmon farming. I read some of your blog and some of the linked articles and it’s all very interesting. I like your detailed descriptions of fish farming and you have beautiful photos!
      Although my family’s livelihood depends upon commercial fishing, my concerns with fish farming are not competitive. I see many problems in the open pen system of fish farming, including sea lice infestations. I don’t doubt that there could be flaws with some of the studies done on sea lice and wild salmon populations (most scientists are biased one way or the other), however, I have seen enough evidence to convince me that fish farms could endanger wild populations and that is too serious of a risk to gamble with.
      My other concerns with farmed salmon are the quantity and quality of fish meal they are fed, antibiotics and pesticides they are treated with, and dye they are colored with. All of this leads to what I see as an inferior product. I choose not to eat farmed salmon for these reasons. That said, the science of fish farming is young and I hope that over time, the industry can become healthier and more sustainable.
      I would be interested to hear what your personal experiences have been with sea lice. Do you have problems with them on your farm? How are they dealt with?
      And in response to the quote by Cousteau, I hope farming doesn’t replace hunting entirely. I see nothing wrong with commercial fishing when it is well managed. Alaska is a great example of excellently managed fisheries that are monitored closely for any signs of strain on the ecosystem. In an ideal world, hunting and farming could coexist in a sustainable manner.
      Thanks again for your perspective.

      • I wouldn’t want your family’s livelihood to degrade because I think the wild stocks are in danger. But you have to look at the big picture, the wild stocks are in danger because of many aspects, including commercial fishing. Yes I agree there are problems with open pen farming. These issues are being dealt with as best as possible and I see an improvement every year. The Canadian fish farming industry is one of the most regulated industries in Canada. The company I work for follows all regulations and then some. In fact I believe our company is an industry leader. Always brainstorming to improve farming salmon. I don’t think it is fair for anyone to blame anyone else on the state of wildstock. I think governments have a hard time managing fisheries in the ocean. Lets say the Alaskan fishery thinks the return on salmon is going to be 30 million. Therefore they open the fishery to take a percentage of it. The salmon then go to sea and while at sea something drastic happens, like another Country fishing in international waters, takes the same percentage. Then a sea lion pack hits the same school of salmon. The media would blame the Alaskan fishery for taking too many salmon. This is just an example of things that could happen. As for sea lice at our farm, I have never seen even smolts die due to sea lice. Sea lice have existed with salmon since long before humans were aware of them. We do lice samples every month and the numbers this year are at an all time low. I am going to write an article on sea lice this week. If you would like to know more, please post a comment on my blog at
        http:\\fishfarming.wordpress.com
        As far as antibiotics, pesticides and that sort, our fish get tested before they leave the farm, the processing plant and at international borders. Either they pass inspection or they get tossed out. Can’t say we know much about what the wild stocks eat. International waters on the ocean get very polluted due to no regulation. For instance, large fuel cargo ships cleaning out tanks. We control what are salmon get, can’t control what the wildstock gets. Just something to ponder.
        Cheers,

      • To continue our discussion, I do have some more questions about salmon farming… I’m happy to hear your sea lice levels are low, that is good news for everyone! I would like to know about the fish meal you feed the salmon. What is it made from, where does it come from? From everything I have read, the fish meal and fish oils that are fed to farmed salmon come mostly from wild-caught fish. The statistics I keep coming across are that it takes about 2-4 lbs of wild fish to make 1 lb of farmed salmon. World Wildlife Fund reports “Fish caught to make fishmeal and oil currently represent one-third of the global fish harvest.”
        You stated in your comment on my blog that we don’t know/can’t control what wild fish are eating especially in polluted international waters, but we can control what the farmed fish eat. Well it seems that your farmed fish are eating the wild fish, which you claim are exposed to pollution in the oceans. According to my understanding of biology, when one animal consumes another, the contaminants (pesticides, mercury, etc) that are stored in the fatty cells of the one animal are transferred to the fatty cells of the second animal, where they are stored. For every creature that is consumed, the levels of contaminants in the predator are compounded. This is why wild salmon, which eat low on the food chain, are usually very low in contaminants like mercury. Sockeye salmon live almost entirely on zooplankton and shrimp like creatures (the red krill give them the red hue of their flesh) making them very low on the food chain. Other species of salmon eat some small fish, but they are still relatively low on the food chain.
        When farmed salmon are fed a diet of other fish (of all species and sizes), the contaminants from the fatty cells of these fish are then transferred to the tissue of the farmed fish. Thus the levels of contaminants in farmed fish are usually found to be higher than in wild fish. Here is an example of one study that finds significantly higher levels of toxins such as PCBs, dioxins, dieldrin, and toxaphene, http://www.albany.edu/ihe/salmonstudy/summary.html.
        Here is a report questioning the safety of farmed fish, http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/food/food-safety/animal-feed-and-food/animal-feed-and-the-food-supply-105/seafood-farmed-vs-wild/. I know scientists have been working to find an alternative to fish meal and oil as feed for farmed salmon, but as far as I know, no significant progress has been made.
        What is your take on the fish meal dependence issue? Do you know of any alternatives for salmon feed?
        Once again, thanks for being willing to discuss these issues with me, it’s all very interesting!

  2. Thought I’d bud into the conversation. Why the focus on fish meal use in farm-raised salmon when the feed/fish efficiency of “wild-caught” salmon is not as good.

    Here’s a posting that explains why the use of fish meal in Alaska is far greater than west coast salmon farms.

    http://alaskasalmonranching.wordpress.com/2009/09/14/lucile-packard-foundation-ignorant-of-fact/

    And here’s a good response to your questions regarding PCB’s. You’re link is old data, and when the industry is quickly evolving with new diets that reduce reliance on fish meal, I can understand it’s hard to keep up with the latest;
    http://www.marineharvestcanada.com/documents/Nutritional_value_of_British_Columbia_Farmed_Salmon_MHC.pdf

    • Kim, thanks for the info. You’re right, it is difficult to keep up with changing science. It’s also difficult to sort through the overwhelming amount of information out there, but I do my best. Is the Alaska Salmon Ranching Blog yours? Its a good read… I wasn’t aware there were many salmon farms in Alaska. Can you explain to me what you mean by the feed/fish efficiency of “wild-caught” salmon, because I was under the impression that wild and farmed salmon have very different diets. Sockeye especially, with a diet consisting almost entirely of zooplankton and krill. I fail to see how wild salmon could have the same overall impact as farmed salmon when it comes to feed.
      Thanks again for the links,
      Robin

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